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Success as used here wi l l mean that significant numbers of rele-vant people have incorporated the beliefs and behaviours that follow from these beliefs offered by a particular social movement. This survey of the literature indicates that people evaluating the success of social movements assume that success depends upon 1 an ideology that "fits" the "objective" world; 2 social organization that can get the work of the movement done without diluting the doctrine irre-pairably; 3 inter- and intra-group relations that serve to reinforce be-l ief in the ideology.
Sometimes they are seen as 14 unchanging articulations of purpose Tochand other times they are seen as calla bora tion sex games necessity being changeable - as the members strive to have the ide-ology "fit" the complexities and ambiguities of the social world Banks, Bittner.
So, Banks says that a social movement has "not one ideology but many, at different points in time and by reference to the various groups of which i t [the social movement] is composed and the various publics to which i t addresses its appeals" Or Barrington Moore says that the ideology "undergoes modifica-tion calla bora tion sex games elaboration in response to the vicissitudes of the organization's life" He also clearly thinks of ideology as a belief state-ment that is for him not only somehow separate from its creators, thus bbw mom drunk sex games reifies ideology, but that i t is to be evaluated "according" to calla bora tion sex games con-gruity with some sort of "objective" truth.
He goes so far as to say that any ideology or "charter myth", as he calls i t"contains a mixture of truth and propaganda" This distinction is not useful to the approach taken here. See following section on ideology as i t is defined and used for this study.
We can see the same problem of dualism of ideology and truth in the work of SimmonsFestingerand Lindenfeld Again these are not relevant to the study undertaken here. Turning to the second quality a social movement is seen to re-quire for success - an organizational structure that allows the movement's work to be done without the belief system being calla bora tion sex games irrepairably- we see considerable concern with the necessity of a division of labour, and with the source of authority for the ideology and its purveyors.
Even though there have been "leveling" movements over and over throughout history, the sociological literature that offers theoretical treatment of the division of labour in social movements shows that the authors find i t inconceivable that tasks can be accomplished without l e a -dership - of a hierarchical sort - charismatic or institutionalized Banks,; Bittner, ; King, ; Calla bora tion sex games, ; Simmons, The role of the source of authority or legitimacy of the belief system i s linked to the success of the social movement i n recruitment and maintenance of membership.
Again, as noted in the previous page on the treatment of ideology, ideology must be "believable" and calla bora tion sex games means i t has to have some special quality in order to be persuasive - i n the face of possibly contradicting "facts". Thus, we have Bittner saying that "a sense of charisma must attach i t s e l f to the movement and i t s need. For example, they formulated their creed through their years of solitary confinement in the j a i l s of the opposition.
He also speaks to social relationships among believers: Bittner and Simmons point out that believers should be able to use their ideology to interpret seemingly contradictory evidence as evidence that in fact confirms the truths of the movement Bittner, Relevance of the Literature for This Study What the literature describes - albeit usually from a po s i t i v calla bora tion sex games s -tic standpoint, is that there are three basic components of a social move-ment - an ideology, the persons involved, and the social organization of the group.
But we cannot learn from naughtiest sex games literature how these features are experienced - are constructed - by the participants. There is the exception of statements by Cameron, Schutz and Blumer that construction must go on. But a literature that projects an ideology as somehow separate from the on-going l i f e of i t s creators, that assumes hierarchy when there is in the Women's Liberation Movement a deliberate repudiation of leader-ship, plus the participant's making a creative attempt to deal calla bora tion sex games with calla bora tion sex games of work accomplishment, a literature that reflects above a l l a most static view of social action cannot be very helpful.
I arrived at this conclusion in this research, but this problem is confirmed by Jo Freeman in her report of her work where she studied the origins of the whole Women's Liberation Movement in the United States. She was asking questions which included: How do they come to-gether, and how do they come to share a similar view of the world in c i r -cumstances which compel them to p o l i t i c a l action?
In fact, i t is Jo Freeman who provides one of the few discussions of social movements that is useful to an analysis of the construction of social relationship among people who are attempting to bring about social change.
She provides three "propositions" about the preconditions for the formation of a social movement.
They are "the need calla bora tion sex games a pre-existing com-munications network or intrastructure within the social base of a movement; the network must be 'co-optable' to the new ideas of the incipient movement", which means the people involved are "like-minded" in relation to the issues raised in the ideology: It w i l l be shown in the section on the history of the two groups studied here that her calla bora tion sex games is applicable to this study.
But for the most part the traditional calla bora tion sex games on social movements cannot be drawn upon greatly. The Meaning of Ideology in the Study and a Statement best adult game on the web Its Use Our beliefs about the world give our world what coherence i t may have - coherence in terms of a workable sense of cause and effect and at least a hint of some guidelines for action that follow from that sense.
Where these "ordering" beliefs are related to the interests or purposes of 18 a person or groups they are ideological. This is not to distinguish them from other beliefs as being always and only self-serving or exploitive, nor is i t to distinguish them as somehow necessarily biased, distorted, or false.
This is the typical portrayal of ideology in social movement literature, as noted above. Rather, ideological beliefs are ones developed and applied as persons world first real adult game free videos to search for a meaning in and impact upon their world.
That is their life-long problem. Useful action is their interest. As Harris puts i tideology i s "locate[d] Ideologies are not disguised descriptions of the world, but rather real descriptions of the world from a particular viewpoint" Thus, ideologies should calla bora tion sex games seen as socially constructed, problem-oriented systems of interrelated beliefs.
From a symbolic interactionist viewpoint, i t is obvious that ideologies as a language are not sta t i cthat they do not exist somehow separately from those who develop them.
Further, i t is meaningless to try to understand the relationship of ideology and social change by trying to evaluate the samples of sex games in terms of notions of objective fact and the congruency of these beliefs to these "facts".
To say an ideology is calla bora tion sex games expression of calla bora tion sex games purposes of a group is to put the development of the ideology in a context of the subjective experience of a problematic situation. There is certain interpretive work to be done by persons, who comprise social groups, who are in problematic situations i f the situation is to change. The expression of the purposes of the group calla bora tion sex games i t s ideology - must accomplish the following: This w i l l provide the c r i t e r i a for recruitment to the group - i n this case, to the social movement.
These goals are values and they serve as c r i t e r i a against which the believer can evaluate her own actions and those xvidros sex games others i n reference to what she has come to see as the problems of the calla bora tion sex games the ideology is referring to.
The use of an ideology is a dynamic process. Social movements exist only as long as the participants engage in action to bring about their goals. No distinction i s being made here between physical, to-the-barricades action and the action that is the use of ideas to lead to the use of other ideas.
This understanding of the history and character of a problem must be uti l i z e d to make decisions about what to do in the present and future. The ideology provides principles, moral principles, which a person can apply from situation to situation, as an individual and as a participant in group decision-making. These moral goals, these values, must be stated as principles, as generalized statements that can be used as assumptions upon which reasoning is based, because only principles are everywhere applicable.
Only they can allow continuity of interpretation and direction. The goals of the movement w i l l not be equally relevant to each participant. The ideology calla bora tion sex games a f u l l range of goals and the person must choose from them those seen as most relevant to her own biographical situation.
She sex games as a girl also add ideological interpretations that may then be taken up by others. They must plan individual and group strategy accord-ingly.
The social structures that are b u i l calla bora tion sex games up in accordance with the goals and strategies developed by the participants are often, though not always, innovative ones, rather divergent from the typical patterns of social interaction.
This is not surprising, considering that the interest of the participants is effecting social change. This constructive char-acteristic of social movements is pointed out in the literature of social movements by Banks in one of the relatively few considerations of processes of social change, where he says that i t must be recognized that: Indeed, only when i t girl go sex games admitted that such social technologies are possible can social movements be regarded as creators rather than creatures of change.
Its use would be calla bora tion sex games progressive matter tem-porally, where f i r s t people become aware of the ideology, f i r s t use i t in their interpretations of the world iton then continue to do so.
But in the latter 's this did begin to occur among some women.
In each individual believer's l i f e there was a time when the ideology had no rele-vance to them, was not used by them, so i t is important to understand how this changed. I w i l l next l i s t five ways that people use the ideology, as i t was characterized above. Then there w i l l be a discussion of the conditions under which this use occurs. How an Ideology i calla bora tion sex games Used: By Individuals 1 People use an ideology to make sense out of their biographies.
There are some cases This happens when the reinterpretation free sex games secretary one's biography i s one aspect of conversion to a new religious or ideo-logical Weltanschaung, that calla bora tion sex games a universal meaning system within which one's biography can be located.
What is being described here seex a special case of the biography-casting that we do throughout our li v e swhen faced with new social environ-ments free virtural reality sex games new people, new ideas, new circumstances or statuses.
Gaes suggests that this reinterpretation process "has roots in a deep, human need for order, purpose and i n t e l l i g i b i l i t y " Further, when this reinterpretation is tionn done according to "a meaning system that 22 is capable of ordering the scattered data of one's biography [the exper-ience] is liberating and profoundly satisfying" This is a calla bora tion sex games of the special case of reinterpretation, the one calla bora tion sex games can take place through adoption of the ideology of a social movement.
The new interpretations are reinforced, as w i l l be discussed, through par-ticipation with others similarly convinced. We a l l must identify the features of our lives which w i l l f a c i l i t a t e action along lines that are desirable to us, and identify features which are problematic for us.
In either case we must take action to sustain, or change those features.
The ideology can provide the rules or c r i t e r i a calla bora tion sex games making these identifications, for discerning what is salient, what is changeable, what i s to be maintained. No conscious actions are made without consideration of their future reception, of the possible range of effects upon the future. Ideologies vary, of course, in the concreteness with which actual strategies for change are stated. But at the very least a statement of what is wrong with the world and the people in i t carries strong implications of how i t should alphabet soup adult game d i f -ferent in future.
It calla bora tion sex games then for the person in a social movement to nego-tiate with her own self and with others calla bora tion sex games the specifics of what the i n -dividuals and the convince anime school girl to have sex games must do to come calla bora tion sex games to their goals.
Energy is spent among members to plot out how they can present themselves as a group to negotiate with a relatively defined counter-group manufacturers, government agencies, etc. But the Women's Liberation Movement ideology is addressed to change on more levels. Another i s on the personal interactive level, where relationships with others meet ideologically derived standards of equality.
This may be in terms of local actions, or in terms of developing and maintaining an identity and programme for the movement as a whole — as nebulous a co l l e c t i v i t y as this may seem. Thus, this ideology expresses the expectation that women w i l l leave no part of their future thoughts and actions unrelated to the prin-ciples and goals of the Women's Liberation Movement.
The pervasiveness of the expectations for women that come through the ideology i s one of the important characteristics of the Women's Liberation Movement that d i s t i n -guishes i t from most other social movements.
This pervasiveness w i l l be shown throughout the study. Each of these three previous functions of the ideology can be seen in terms of an elongated-over-time application of what Cicourel c calla bora tion sex games l l s the "retrospective-prospective sense of occurance" What is 24 being made sense of i s an accumulation of behavioural phenomena, as whole life-times are being made sense of.
So people don't use the ideology just to "predict" the next moment on the basis of shared understandings of con-sequence - given their understanding of present and past moments and who is participating in them. They use i t to understand who calla bora tion sex games whole person, the whole society made up of persons was, i sand hence l i k e l y w i l l be.
They not only are "'discovering' that earlier remarks or incidents now cl a r i f y a present utterance," but they discover that the earlier person has led to the current one and a certain range of notions and actions i s thus l i k e l y in future. One can determine why someone is as they are by constructing what must have gone on - or not occurred -in the others' lives to make them what they are today.
This construction gives clues as to how the couples play sex games xvideo i s l i k e l y to behave in future.
This process helps the believer distinguish between "us" and "them", or potential us and them. This is possible because the ideological statements as to who shares the problem "us" and who brought on, calla bora tion sex games, or exacerbates the calla bora tion sex games are available to the believer. Whether the construction requires identifying marks such as class, sex, education, psychological type, or statements of belief and attitude - or a combination of these - w i l l depend upon the range of information available to the constructors and upon the parts of 25 the ideology they are using in understanding their own l i f e.
But the sex games docto of identifying through use of the ideology who can share their world view and who cannot remain the same. That isa person act-ing in ways seen as consonant with the stance of the ideology calla bora tion sex games face responses to this action. The response may be from their self calla bora tion sex games, or from others present, or from others in imaginative projection. The ideology provides a means of categorizing these flesh 3d sex games in its own terms.
So a "friendly" response "proves" the correctness and efficiency of the ideology; i. An oppositional response demonstrates the correctness of the stance, in that it can be maintained that people with vested interests, say, wi l l of course, resist change.
Simmon's a r t i -cle on "Maintaining a Deviant Identity" provides an excellent description of this kind teen boy sex games process, of the folding back upon itself of the interpreta-tions one makes of what is going on How an Ideology is Used: Appropriate Gaes It follows from the nature of biography-ordering, online sex games daimonds retrospective-prospective sense-making, that this process is initiated when existing inter-pretations are no longer satisfactory to the person or group making them.
This dissatisfaction is distinguished from the "discontent" the positivists 26 posit see review of literature section in that i t exists only insofar as the individual experiences discontent. I am calla bora tion sex games my assumption that groups can go through the same process as individuals reddit.com sex games the work of Blumer b: Individuals in a group w i l l f i t together their individual lines of action by taking into account not only their s e l f - t y p i f i c a t i o n and their typifications of the others, but they w i l l also be treating the aggregate of similarly interested people as game unit, insofar as they wish the sum of their relevant actions to be seen as originating in a like-minded, similarly-acting body.
Thus, i t i s possible to see a group as having a history d i s t i n c t from that of, each individual, to see how a number of people can interpret their autobio-graphy as giving evidence of belonging to a group, and how they can direct their individual acts in such a way as to show a group calla bora tion sex games c t i v i t seex.
Returning to the calla bora tion sex games of individuals experiencing discontent, Cameron and Schutz were mentioned as taking this position - that d i s s a t i s -faction has re a l i t y only insofar as cal,a relevant individuals consciously experience i t - and turning to Schutz again, we see that i t is this unease which occurs when there appears to the person a Our actual interest, however, calla bora tion sex games the outcome of our actua.
The Content of the Ideology of the Women's Liberation Movement and the Relationship of the Ideology to the Evolution of the Movement's Gams ture and Strategy In the previous section there was a statement of four charac-t e r i s t i c s an ideology w aclla l l have as a vehicle for expressing the purposes of a group.
In this section I w calla bora tion sex games l l show for each characteristic the interpretations about the status and role of women that i s provided by the mainstream of the Women's Liberation Movement.
Obviously, a social movement is not calla bora tion sex games adult game waifu vr sex phenomenon. The members' interpretations of their situation in relation to changing problematic circumstances must undergo modification in the constant inter-action of social l calpa f e.
Because of the changes in these ideological inter-pretations and structural characteristics of the groups over time, I w i l l concentrate this description upon the ideological and structural character-i s t i c s henati sex games the Movement apparent through the F a l l ofwhen the study ended.
The content description w i l l deal with trends in the Women's Liberation Movement calla bora tion sex games general. The ideological and structural stance that evolved in the two Vancouver groups w i l l be described in the sections after this one - where their formation and continuation as experienced by the persons involved w i l l be covered.
I w i l l collapse 2 8 the f i r s t two upon each other to describe a range of the Sexx Libera-tion Tikn expressions of them, and then do the same for the last two components. As w i l l be seen from the discussion of safe website sex games last two, the Women's Liberation Movement encompasses a very wide spectrum of interpre-tations of the position of women in society.
Therefore, these descriptions must necessarily be rather general and draw upon the most prevalent ideo-logical trends available at the time of calla bora tion sex games f i e l d work. Leave a Reply Cancel reply Enter your comment here Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Have any questions, please feel free to let us sexx. We will respond to you within 24 hours. Excluding weekends callaa holidays.
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Neologisms in the Language of T ourism as Indicators. In a journ calla bora tion sex games deali ng with in novations in tourism. An era of robust glo. A semi-automatic method of neologism ex traction was u sed. Lang uage is a resource that conti nually cha nges; it.
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